According to the 2000 census, Lupao had a population of 34,190 people in 7,406 households, 80% Ilocano and 20% comprising of Tagalog, Pampanguenos, Pangasinenses, and Visayans.

Barangays of Lupao is subdivided into 24:

  • Agupalo Este

  • Agupalo Weste

  • Alalay Chica

  • Alalay Grande

  • Barangay Tienzo

  • Bagong Flores

  • Balbalungao

  • Burgos

  • Cordero

  • Mapangpang

  • Namulandayan

  • Parista

  • Poblacion East

  • Poblacion North

  • Poblacion South

  • Poblacion West

  • Salvacion I

  • Salvacion II

  • San Antonio Este

  • San Antonio Weste

  • San Isidro

  • San Pedro

  • San Roque

  • Santo Domingo

  • The derivation of the name Lupao so far as known has never been fully explained except with the oft repeated myth that it originated from an itchy shrub called which grew abundantly on the plains long before the Spaniards settled on the place.

    During the Spanish rule, the territorial jurisdiction of the province of Nueva Ecija extended to as far south at Cabiao and the towns of San Quintin, Rosales, Balungao and (H)umingan in the north, which later on formed part of the province of Pangasinan. Lupao was a component barrio of Umingan. It remained so until 1871 when some residents led by a Sena±or Calderon petitioned the Governor General for the segregation of Lupao as a barrio of Umingan and the eventual creation of Lupao as "Tenencia Absoluta" to be headed by a Teniente Absoluto. On September 28, 1871, the Govierno Superior Civil de Filipinas decreed the creation of Lupao as Tenencia Absoluta. It signified the formal segregation as barrio and the eventual creation as of the province of Nueva Ecija. Under the Spanish rule, a pueblo is created through the Laws of the Indies and represented a local government unit. The pueblo was an agency of the Central Government.

    Salvacion was the first barrio of Lupao. Its initial territory also included Barrio Cabaritan now known as San Jose City. Barangay San Roque was known as Odiao and San Isidro as Macaniaoed. Among the first leaders of the municipality during the twilight years of Spanish Rule were Benito Romualdo as Capitan Municipal and Celestino Jabalde as Juez de Paz.

    When the American forces defeated the Spaniards, towns were founded through General Order # 43.On January 31, 1901, the Philippine Commission passed Act No. 82 that eventually installed Civil Governments on different towns in the Philippines, including Lupao. At this time, great changes occurred in the economic and political landscapes of the communities.

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